Views   Views: 217    PDF Downloads: 251
Share:Share on LinkedInShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on FacebookEmail this to someone

Icp-Ms Determination of Trace Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Jazan Area, Saudi Arabia

Mohamed Albratty1, Ismail Adam Arbab1, 2, Hassan Ahmad Alhazmi1, Ibraheem M. Attafi3 and Abdul Jabbar Al-Rajab4, *

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, University of West Kordufan, El Nahud, West Kordufan State, Sudan.

3Poison Control and Medical Forensic Chemistry Center, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

4Center for Environmental Research and Studies, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

 

Corresponding author Emails: alrajab@hotmail.com


DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/CWE.12.1.02

Abstract:

Requisite reference facts about essential elements in treated and plastic bottled drinking water is usually mentioned on the products. However, more information is sometime crucial regarding trace elements in treated, bottled and other sources of drinking water such as tap water to evaluate their quality. This study is aimed to evaluate drinking water quality in the main governorates (Jazan, Sabya and Abu Arish) of Jazan province located in the South-Western region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This is the first such study carried out in Jazan city so that the research team can come out with valuable recommendations in the issue. The research team has collected a sum of 68 water samples from different sources comprising hospitals (treated tap water), stations for drinking water treatment (large blue bottles of drinking water) and bottled drinking water (purchased from local markets). Using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), the concentrations of 20 elements were determined. The physiochemical parameters of water samples were measured. All parameters were within the recommended limits of the World Health Organization (WHO, 2011) and Gulf Cooperation Council Standardization Organization (GSO, 2008). Trace and major elements were found to be below the standard guideline values , except for uranium in some tap water samples. This preliminary study will significantly  improve the awareness and knowledge among the society about the drinking water quality in Jazan area.

Keywords:

ICP-MS; trace elements; drinking water; water quality; Jazan; Saudi Arabia

Download this article as: 

Copy the following to cite this article:

Albratty M, Arbab I. A, Alhazmi H. A, Attafi I. M, Al-Rajab A. J. Icp-Ms Determination of Trace Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Jazan Area, Saudi Arabia. Curr World Environ 2017;12(1).. doi : http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/CWE.12.1.02


Copy the following to cite this URL:

Albratty M, Arbab I. A, Alhazmi H. A, Attafi I. M, Al-Rajab A. J. Icp-Ms Determination of Trace Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Jazan Area, Saudi Arabia. Curr World Environ 2017;12(1). Available from: http://www.cwejournal.org/?p=16826


Introduction

 Pure drinking water is  one of the basic needs for  every human being in the world. For a large portion of the African and Asian  populations, safe drinking water is not effectively accessible [1]. Out of the 7 billion individuals on earth, more than one billion and half need to get  pure and safe drinking water and around 2.7 billion do not have admittance to satisfactory sanitation administrations [2-3]. Notwithstanding these deficiencies, different sorts of waterborne illnesses execute more than 6 million kids every year i.e. around 20,000 kids a day [4-5]. Water covers 70 percent of the globe’s surface,  mostly saltwater. Freshwater covers  only 3 percent of the world’s surface and quite a bit of it falsehoods solidified in the Antarctic and Greenland polar ice [5]. New water that is accessible for human utilization originates from waterways, lakes and subsurface aquifers. These sources represent just a single percent of  total water on the earth. Six billion individuals rely on the supply water and a noteworthy segment of the total populace is confronting water deficiencies (Fig.1) [5].

Groundwater represents the main source of drinking water in Saudi Arabia [6-7]. The  quality of water is of scientific  as well as public concerns,  till now no serious issue in drinking water quality  has been reported  in the country [8]. Many resources of chemical and microbial contaminations of groundwater  including wastewater, pesticides, fertilizers, and industrial  wastes have been reported [9-10].

In the recent years, there was a considerable increase in the consumption of bottled drinking water. This means that systematic and regular independent tests on the quality of bottled drinking water must be applied, and different organizations worldwide set standards for bottled drinking water [11-12].

The consumption of bottled drinking water has considerably been increased from last few years. This means that, there is an enormous requirement of systematic and regular independent tests for its quality. Different regulatory organizations worldwide have set the quality standards for bottled drinking water.

Jazan is located in the South-Western part of the Saudi Arabian Peninsula [16°53’21”N 42°33’40”E], and it is considered the second smallest province which comes after Al Bahah region of the kingdom in terms of area considerations. Jazan spreads  over 300 km along the southern coast of the Red Sea directly north of Yemen. A total of 11,671 km² is the representative area of Jazan province with total population of 1,365,110  according to the 2010 census. Jazan city itself is the capital of the province with its 14 governorates, table 1 [13].

In this area, the drinking water is mainly provided either  as bottled water of various capacities ready to use, or filled after treatment  in plastic containers (20L or larger). However, the information about the concentrations of heavy metals in the drinking water supplied to Jazan area is inadequate. The  aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of essential and toxic elements, and evaluate the physicochemical properties of drinking water from different available sources. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first scientific effort for determination of heavy metal contents in drinking water from all types of resources in Jazan area.

Materials and Methods

Water Sample Collection

Three types of drinking water samples were collected: bottled, filled treated  and tap water. The samples of all the three types of water sources were collected during August-September 2016. A total of 68 samples were collected including; (I) tap water samples (n = 12) from 4 different hospitals in the Jazan province, (II) treated (filtered and ozonized) drinking groundwater (n = 17), and (III) bottled drinking water (n = 39) of different brand available in the market. After collection the samples were directly transported to the laboratory and stored in their original package at 4oC till analysis.

Analytical Methods

The physiochemical parameters such as EC (full form) and pH were measured  using a Bluelab combo meter (Tauranga, New Zealand) in the laboratory of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jazan University.

Major and trace elements (beryllium Be, magnesium Mg, calcium Ca, aluminum Al, titanium Ti, chromium Cr, manganese Mn, cobalt Co, nickel Ni, copper Cu, zinc Zn, arsenic As, rubidium Rb, strontium Sr, cadmium Cd, cesium Cs, barium Ba, lead Pb, and uranium U) were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry ICP-MS (X-SeriesII; Thermo-Fisher Scientific Inc., Waltham, MA, USA) equipped with an autosampler (Cetac ASX-520 with 4 × 60 place sample racks). The operation condition of ICP-MS is summarized in table 2.

Table 1: The region of Jazan province is sub-divided into 14 governorates and the main four of these governorates are listed here with necessary data

S. No.

Name

Census
15 September 2004

Census (Preliminary)
28 April 2010

1

Abu Arish

123,943

197,112

2

Jazan

255,340

157,536

3

Sabya

198,086

228,375

4

Samtah

128,447

201,656

 

Table 2: Operation conditions of ICP-MS

Parameter/unit

              Setting

RF power (W)

                     1500

RF Matching (V)

1.7

Carrier gas (L/min)

0.90

Makeup Gas (L/min)

0.27

Sampling depth (mm)

8

S/C temp (ºC)

2

Nebulizer pump (rps)

0.1

Torch-horizontal (mm)

1.2

Torch-vertical (mm)

1.4

Extract 1 (V)

4.3

Extract 2 (V)

-99

Omega Bias-ce (V)

-16

Omega Lens-ce (V)

2.6

Cell Entrance (V)

-26

Cell Exit (V)

-20

Channel spacing

0.02

QP Focus (V)

5

 

Results and Discussion

Table 3 summarizes the recommended values of heavy metals and physico-chemical properties  of the drinking water. In the tables (4-13) the levels of all tested parameters are presented for the samples from  all types of water resources.

Table 3: Regulatory limits of different parameters and trace elements levels in the treated and bottled drinking water [17].

Organization              

WHO [14]

USEPA [18]

GSO [19]

SASO [20]

Parameter

Unit

Guideline value

Guideline value

Guideline value

Guideline value

pH

 

6.5–9.5

6.5–8.5

6.5–8.5

EC

µS/cm

800–2,300

TH

mg/L

500

500

TDS

mg/L

1,000

500

1,500

Li

µg/L

 

­­­­­

   

Be

µg/L

-

-

-

-

Mg

mg/L

30–150

Ca

mg/L

200

Al

µg/L

200

50–200

Ti

µg/L

Cr

µg/L

50

100

50

Mn

µg/L

400

50

400

50

Co

µg/L

Ni

µg/L

70

70

Cu

µg/L

2,000

1,300

1,000

Zn

µg/L

3,000

5,000

As

µg/l

10

10

10

Rb

µg/L

Sr

µg/L

4.2 mg/L

Cd

µg/L

3

5

3

Cs

µg/L

Ba

µg/L

700

2,000

700

Pb

µg/L

10

15

10

U

µg/L

15

30

15

 

Physico-chemical Properties

To know the different physico-chemical parameters of drinking water is very essential for the safety of human beings. The average pH values were compared for all the samples within a type of water and also for the samples of the different types. It was found that the tap water samples and collected from stations have recorded comparatively  higher  pH values than  those of bottled drinking water samples (Tables 4, 5, and 10). Within the tap water from hospitals,  the sample from Abu Arish Public Hospital showed the highest pH (7.86). The overall variation may be due to the presence of the materials that coagulate and which utilized for purification of water.

Overlapping in the pH values was observed between the range of pH of treated samples from stations of drinking water and those of bottled drinking water. Still the range is within the permissible limit of WHO and other national and international organizations regulating the water quality and related health issues [14]. This permissibility is not excluding the tap water samples from hospitals. In general, the pH values of water samples in this study were found to be within the acceptable and permissible limit. Thus, it may be concluded that valuable positive outcome is indicated from water treatment processes in terms of pH, a significant physico-chemical parameter. Even though, pH values of some water samples  are marginally near the highest permissible values recommended by WHO and other related organizations. A proper control and follow up is required during all the stages of water treatment and distribution to the consumer points so that to maintain the purity of drinking water  and minimize the  associated health risks. This will also participate in minimizing water corrosion through distribution systems [15].

Although the values of other physico-chemical parameters such as EC, TDS and TH were found to be within the acceptable range set by the national and international organizations’ guidelines, a considerable variation was observed  among all the water samples.

Major Elements

Presence of sodium, calcium, magnesium and potassium in drinking water is considered to be essential to the heath of mankind is ranging between 10 mg ̸ L to 100 mg ̸ L for sodium and calcium respectively and between 1 mg ̸ L to 10 mg ̸ L for magnesium and potassium [16]. In this study, sodium is not included as one of the 20 elements under investigation. However, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) concentrations in all representative samples were measured. Treated drinking water of stations and bottled drinking water samples have scored the lower concentrations of the two major elements compared to the samples of tap water from hospitals.. (Table 4, 5 and 8). Depletion of these elements during the treatment processes  may be the significant cause of their varying results. Only two samples (Alrraidah, Jazan and Aljisr-Bish) from treated drinking water samples of stations were found to contain calcium (Ca). On the other hand, calcium is not detected in bottled drinking water samples indicating the deficiency of this major element in all the brands of bottled water samples tested.

Table 4: Parameters measured in treated tap water samples from hospitals of Jazan region

Parameter

Unit

P.M.H.a

A.P.Hb

K.F.Hc

J.P.Hd

               Permissible limits

 

 

n= 3

n= 3

n= 3

n=3

WHO, 2011

USEPA, 2009

GSO, 2008

ASAO, 1984

pH

 

7.22

7.86

7.72

7.48

6.5–9.5

6.5–8.5

NM

6.5–8.5

EC

µS/cm

 

1222

 

1468

 

1396

 

1272

NM

NM

NM

800–2300

TH

mg/L

3017

6179

1059

2516

500

NM

NM

500

TDS

mg/L

686

1242

597

1124

1000

500

NM

1500

Li

µg/L

42.82

40.94

38.91

39.00

NM

0.005

NM

NM

Be

µg/L

62.22429

Nil

Nil

Nil

NM

NM

NM

NM

Mg

Mg/L

3017

6179

1059

2516

NM

NM

NM

30–150

Ca

Mg/L

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

NM

NM

NM

200

Al

µg/L

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

200

50–200

NM

NM

Ti

µg/L

5.217

5.188

5.183

5.183

NM

NM

NM

NM

Cr

µg/L

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

50

100

50

NM

Mn

µg/L

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

400

50

400

50

Co

µg/L

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

NM

NM

NM

NM

Ni

µg/L

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

70

NM

70

NM

Cu

µg/L

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

2,000

1300

1,000

NM

Zn

µg/L

311.8

215.6

59.18

88.45

3,000

5000

NM

NM

As

µg/L

94.96

27.88

Nil

Nil

10

10

10

NM

Rb

µg/l

2947

720.1

142.5

264.8

NM

NM

NM

NM

Sr

µg/L

640.7

117.2

21.31

41.59

NM

4.2 mg/L

NM

NM

Cd

µg/L

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

3

5

3

NM

Cs

µg/L

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

NM

NM

NM

NM

Ba

µg/L

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

700

2,000

700

NM

Pb

µg/L

5.779

8.250

4.558

5.532

10

15

10

NM

U

 

2.018

Nil

Nil

Nil

15

30

15

NM

 

Total No. of Samples                                                                                    12                                                                                                          

   

 Key: a = Prince Mohammed Bin Nasir Hospital (Al-shawajrah); b= Abu Arish Public Hospital (Abu Arish); c = King Fahd Hospital (Abu Arish); d = Jazan Public Hospital (Jazan); n = No. of samples from each hospital; NM = Not mentioned; Nil = Not available in the sample

 

Table 5: Parameters measured in treated water samples collected from different governorates of Jazan  region (group I elements)

Information about samples

Concentrations  (µg/L)

Physico-chemical parameters

 

Code-S No.

Station Name

Li

Be

Mg

Al

Cr

pH

EC µS/cm

TH mg/L

TDS mg/L

Y-1

Alrraidah, Jazan

38.97

Nil

1544

Nil

Nil

7.21

124.5

1.6674

698.2

Y-2

Rafhaa Waters

138.99

Nil

302.7

Nil

Nil

7.34

187.3

 

140.2

Y-3

Alssadeem Labs-Jazan

39.06

Nil

1141

Nil

Nil

7.54

211.6

1.141

346.6

Y-4

Faris-Beesh

38.86

Nil

2662

Nil

Nil

7.56

222.4

2.662

432.4

Y-5

Aljisr-Beesh

39.10

Nil

546

384

Nil

8.14

198.1

0.594

211.6

Y-6

Alghariya Waters-Jazan

38.98

Nil

1694

124.7

Nil

7.43

344.5

1.694

789.3

Y-7

RoohAlfirdos Labs-Jazan

38.89

Nil

2213

Nil

Nil

7.22

31.6

2.213

812.4

Y-8

QatratSehab Waters-Jazan

39.19

Nil

1509

20.86

Nil

7.28

198.2

1.509

562.3

Y-9

Marwiah-WadiJazan

38.84

Nil

1490

Nil

Nil

7.55

256.8

1.490

665.4

Y-10

Alrayan-WadiJazan

38.97

Nil

1689

Nil

Nil

7.98

229.8

1.689

698.5

Y-11

Alqana’a Lab-WadiJazan

39.02

Nil

1727

Nil

Nil

8.12

276.7

1.727

885.8

Y-12

Alkauther Waters-Sabeya

39.12

Nil

2876

49.98

Nil

8.06

290.0

2.876

316.6

Y-13

Aishifa Waters-Sabeya

38.95

Nil

1551

0.3609

Nil

7.87

265.7

1.551

498.6

Y-14

Dafa Waters-Sabeya

43.52

Nil

537.6

907.2

Nil

7.76

318.4

0.5376

756.3

Y-15

Alnaqa’a-Sabeya

39.12

Nil

2389

149.8

Nil

7.30

341.6

2.389

357.9

Y-16

Tohama Lab-Sabeya

38.97

Nil

870.3

112.1

Nil

8.11

309.2

0.8703

1034.6

Y-17

Almanhal-Sabeya

39.17

Nil

3292

184.1

Nil

7.86

299.7

3.292

622.4

Key: = Not available in the sample

 

Table 6: Parameters measured in treated water  samples collected from different governorates of Jazan region (group II elements)

Information about samples

Concentrations (µg/L)

Code-Ser No.

 

Mn

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Y-1

Alrraidah, Jazan

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

28.34

Y-2

Rafhaa waters

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

21.86

Y-3

Alssadeem Labs-Jazan

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

27.36

Y-4

Faris-Beesh

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

50.93

Y-5

Aljisr-Beesh

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

80.59

Y-6

Alghariya Waters-Jazan

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

33.25

Y-7

RoohAlfirdos Labs-Jazan

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

28.73

Y-8

QatratSehab Waters-Jazan

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

34.43

Y-9

Marwiah-WadiJazan

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

19.50

Y-10

Alrayan-WadiJazan

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

19.50

Y-11

Alqana’a Lab-WadiJazan

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

16.16

Y-12

Alkauther Waters-Sabeya

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

30.11

Y-13

Aishifa Waters-Sabeya

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

15.38

Y-14

Dafa Waters-Sabeya

Nil

Nil

Nil

14.14

98.47

Y-15

Alnaqa’a-Sabeya

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

31.09

Y-16

Tohama Lab-Sabeya

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

33.25

Y-17

Almanhal-Sabeya

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

51.32

 

GSO,2009

         

 

WHO, 2011

         

Key: Nil = Not available in the sample

Table 7: Parameters measured in treated water samples collected from different governorates of Jazan region (group III elements)

Information about samples

Concentrations (µg/L)

Code-S. No.

Names of stations

Ca

As

Rb

Sr

Cd

Y-1

Alrraidah, Jazan

123.4

Nil

89.04

11.86

Nil

Y-2

Rafhaa waters

Nil

Nil

28.09

1.470

Nil

Y-3

Alssadeem Labs-Jazan

Nil

Nil

159.7

23.32

Nil

Y-4

Faris-Bish

Nil

Nil

169.2

25.36

Nil

Y-5

Aljisr-Bish

48.08

Nil

3.114

ND

Nil

Y-6

Alghariya Waters-Jazan

Nil

Nil

149.5

22.06

Nil

Y-7

RoohAlfirdos Labs-Jazan

Nil

Nil

195.5

29.71

Nil

Y-8

QatratSehab Waters-Jazan

Nil

Nil

201.2

30.91

Nil

Y-9

Marwiah-WadiJazan

Nil

Nil

127.4

17.92

Nil

Y-10

Alrayan-WadiJazan

Nil

Nil

139.8

20.18

Nil

Y-11

Alqana’a Lab-WadiJazan

Nil

Nil

140.2

20.40

Nil

Y-12

Alkauther Waters-Sabya

Nil

Nil

249.9

38.79

Nil

Y-13

Aishifa Waters-Sabya

Nil

Nil

125.7

18.18

Nil

Y-14

Dafa Waters-Sabya

Nil

Nil

16.10

0.6073

Nil

Y-15

Alnaqa’a-Sabya

Nil

Nil

176.2

26.62

Nil

Y-16

Tohama Lab-Sabya

Nil

Nil

75.66

9.535

Nil

Y-17

AlmanhalSabya

Nil

Nil

201.2

31.04

Nil

Key: Nil = Not available in the sample

 

Table 8: Parameters measured in treated water samples collected from different governorates of Jazan region (group VI elements)

Information about samples

Concentrations (µg/L)

Code-Ser. No.

Names of stations

Cs

Ba

Tl

Pb

U

Y-1

Alrraidah, Jazan

Nil

Nil

5.178

7.590

Nil

Y-2

Rafhaa waters

Nil

Nil

Nil

5.176

5.195

Y-3

Alssadeem Labs-Jazan

Nil

Nil

5.175

4.325

2.016

Y-4

Faris-Beesh

Nil

Nil

5.176

4.777

Nil

Y-5

Aljisr-Beesh

Nil

Nil

5.186

5.624

Nil

Y-6

Alghariya Waters-Jazan

Nil

Nil

5.179

5.394

22.18

Y-7

RoohAlfirdos Labs-Jazan

Nil

Nil

5.175

4.393

Nil

Y-8

QatratSehab Waters-Jazan

Nil

Nil

5.178

4.261

42.34

Y-9

Marwiah-WadiJazan

Nil

Nil

5.175

4.216

Nil

Y-10

Alrayan-WadiJazan

Nil

Nil

5.174

4.213

Nil

Y-11

Alqana’a Lab-WadiJazan

Nil

Nil

5.180

4.265

Nil

Y-12

Alkauther Waters-Sabeya

Nil

Nil

5.181

4.244

22.18

Y-13

Aishifa Waters-Sabeya

Nil

Nil

5.174

4.264

Nil

Y-14

Dafa Waters-Sabeya

Nil

Nil

14.22

15.71

Nil

Y-15

Alnaqa’a-Sabeya

Nil

Nil

5.186

5.225

Nil

Y-16

Tohama Lab-Sabeya

Nil

Nil

5.183

4.935

Nil

Y-17

Almanhal-Sabeya

Nil

Nil

5.178

5.600

Nil

Key: Nil = Not available in the sample

 

Trace Elements

Although, the trace elements contribute in the natural occurrence of dissolved constituents in groundwater by only 1 %, there should be a periodical follow up and measurement of trace element in bottled and treated drinking water to avoid contamination by these toxic metals from unexpected sources. Some of the trace elements are essential to human health such as vanadium, selenium, cobalt and nickel upto certain concentration range. On the other hand some  of these trace elements are toxic to human beings such as cadmium, aluminum, arsenic and lead with concentrations not exceeding 1 µg/L and uranium with a concentration lower than 10 µg/L [16].

Water samples of treated tap water and  from stations recorded the highest values  of Rb and Sr. However, their concentrations did not exceed the recommended values of the organizations including WHO. The average concentrations of a total of 14 trace elements measured in all the samples were within the permissible limits except three samples from treated drinking water of stations [Alghariya Waters-Jazan (22.18 mg/L), QatratSehab Waters-Jazan (42.34 mg/L) and Alkauther Waters-Sabeya (22.18 mg/L)] in which the uranium level exceeded the permissible limits of all national and international organizations including WHO which might due to the geophysical properties of Sabeya area.

Improvement of distribution systems and application of systematic regular maintenance may be effective to avoid the existence of these toxic elements. These elements can be considered safe at the lower concentrations levels as shown in (Table 3). Cobalt concentration values were very low in all the tested samples and also remained undetected in some of the water samples. The strontium is a naturally occurring element and its permissible limit is 4200 µg/L which is very high as shown in (Table 10). It is noteworthy that none of the deliberate components in the drinking water tested in this study exceeded their maximum allowable limits. Hence, on the basis the investigation results, one can infer that the drinking water quality in Jazan  area is maintained as per the global regulatory standards.

Table 9: List of bottled drinking water samples, brands, codes and number of samples in each brand collected from  the market of Jazan city

Serial

 Brand

Code

Number of Samples (n)

Z-1

QatratSahab

QS

2

Z-2

Hana

H

2

Z-3

Pure life

PL

3

Z-4

Hada

HD

1

Z-5

Aquqfina

AF

1

Z-6

Panda

P

2

Z-7

Arwa

A

2

Z-8

Fayha

F

2

Z-9

Nova

N

2

Z-10

Mozen

M

2

Z-11

Al-gassim

AQ

1

X-12

Najran

NJ

1

Z-13

Hilwa

HL

1

Z-14

Maeen

MA

2

Z-15

Haley

HA

2

Z-16

Dala

D

3

Z-17

Zamzam

Z

2

Z-18

Manhal

ZM

3

Z-19

Juman

J

2

Z-20

Safa

S

2

Z-21

One

O

1

Z-22

Al-wadi

AW

1

Total No. of Samples

   

39

Total No. of Brands

   

22

 

Table 10: Parameters measured in bottled drinking water of samples collected from supermarkets of different governorates of Jazan city (group I of elements)

Samples

Concentrations (µg/L)

Physico-chemical parameters

Brand name

Li

Be

Mg

Al

Cr

pH

EC µS/cm

TH mg/L

TDS mg/L

QatratSahab

38.35

Nil

804.6

Nil

Nil

6.9

98.5

0.8046

6.7

Hana

37.89

Nil

477.9

Nil

Nil

6.8

231.5

0.4779

4.2

Pure life

38.73

Nil

7602

Nil

Nil

7.2

453.5

7.602

11.26

Hada

38.22

Nil

1765

Nil

Nil

6.7

135.9

1.765

4.2

Aquqfina

4.225

Nil

118.5

Nil

Nil

7.4

211.4

1.18.5

3.5

Panda

38.49

Nil

781.1

Nil

Nil

7.3

460.2

0.7811

2.6

Arwa

37.88

Nil

927.5

Nil

Nil

6.9

104.5

0.9275

2.1

Fayha

38.13

Nil

689.1

Nil

Nil

6.7

250.5

0.6891

4.6

Nova

37.78

Nil

983.7

Nil

Nil

7.5

332.3

0.9837

4.4

Mozen

40.40

Nil

1369

Nil

Nil

7.8

278.6

1.369

4.4

Al-gassim

37.74

Nil

4949

Nil

Nil

7.5

511.3

4.949

17.8

Najran

38.31

Nil

798.7

Nil

Nil

7.6

390.4

0.7987

5.6

Hilwa

38.59

Nil

6951

Nil

Nil

7.7

112.4

6.951

13.2

Maeen

41.95

Nil

3068

Nil

Nil

7.1

234.6

3.068

23.5

Haley

38.64

Nil

1054

Nil

Nil

7.4

234.6

1.054

15.6

Dala

38.56

Nil

302.81

Nil

Nil

7.6

327.7

0.3028

12.3

Zamzam

38.63

Nil

961.7

Nil

Nil

6.8

498.3

0.9617

6.9

Manhal

38.41

Nil

798.2

Nil

Nil

6.8

128.5

0.7982

5.3

Juman

38.99

Nil

3818

Nil

Nil

7.6

321.7

3.818

26.6

Safa

38.02

Nil

3168

Nil

Nil

7.9

222.5

3.168

30.5

One

37.91

Nil

6749

Nil

Nil

7.3

443.6

6.749

40.2

Al-wadi

37.76

Nil

724.3

Nil

Nil

6.7

390.0

0.7243

18.8

Key: Nil = Not available in the sample

Table 11: Parameters measured in bottled drinking water of samples collected from supermarkets of different governorates of Jazan city (second group of elements)

Samples

Concentrations (µg/L)

Brand name

Mn

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

QatratSahab

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

3.395

Hana

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

3.591

Pure life

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

3.591

Hada

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

14.20

Aquqfina

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

0.6341

Panda

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

3.395

Arwa

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

9.484

Fayha

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

4.377

Nova

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

7.716

Mozen

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

12.43

Al-gassim

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

6.734

Najran

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

8.502

Hilwa

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

6.341

Maeen

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

13.02

Haley

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

12.04

Dala

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

23.63

Zamzam

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

6.734

Manhal

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

6.145

Juman

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

21.07

Safa

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

31.68

One

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

15.97

Al-wadi

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

13.61

Key: Nil = Not available in the sample

Table 12: Parameters measured in bottled drinking water of samples collected from supermarkets of different governorates of Jazan city (third group of elements)

Samples

Concentrations in (µg/L)

Brand name

Ca

As

Rb

Sr

Cd

QatratSahab

Nil

Nil

69.43

8.669

Nil

Hana

Nil

Nil

177.7

25.49

Nil

Pure life

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Hada

Nil

Nil

6.322

Nil

Nil

Aquqfina

Nil

Nil

14.16

2.104

Nil

Panda

Nil

Nil

70.88

8.045

Nil

Arwa

Nil

Nil

40.16

2.765

Nil

Fayha

Nil

Nil

51.77

4.617

Nil

Nova

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Mozen

Nil

Nil

139.6

20.32

Nil

Al-gassim

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Najran

Nil

Nil

66.89

8.357

Nil

Hilwa

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Maeen

Nil

Nil

60.88

10.26

Nil

Haley

Nil

Nil

214.8

32.22

Nil

Dala

Nil

Nil

6.551

Nil

Nil

Zamzam

Nil

Nil

194.2

28.64

Nil

Manhal

Nil

Nil

74.49

9.005

Nil

Juman

Nil

Nil

199.0

29.54

Nil

Safa

Nil

Nil

108.7

14.35

Nil

One

Nil

Nil

46.27

3.323

Nil

Al-wadi

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Key: Nil = Not available in the sample

Table 13: Parameters measured in bottled drinking water of samples collected from supermarkets of different governorates of Jazan city (fourth group of elements)

Samples

Concentrations (µg/L)

Brand name

Cs

Ba

Ti

Pb

U

QatratSahab

Nil

Nil

5.172

5.711

Nil

Hana

Nil

Nil

5.172

4.658

22.18

Pure life

Nil

Nil

5.172

4.431

Nil

Hada

Nil

Nil

5.174

4.400

Nil

Aquqfina

Nil

Nil

0.5174

0.4694

Nil

Panda

Nil

Nil

5.173

4.297

82.66

Arwa

Nil

Nil

5.180

4.936

2.016

Fayha

Nil

Nil

5.175

4.572

Nil

Nova

Nil

Nil

5.182

4.356

Nil

Mozen

Nil

Nil

5.172

4.342

Nil

Al-gassim

Nil

Nil

5.172

5.696

Nil

Najran

Nil

Nil

5.174

4.852

Nil

Hilwa

Nil

Nil

5.172

4.332

2.016

Maeen

Nil

Nil

5.175

4.646

Nil

Haley

Nil

Nil

5.172

4.987

42.34

Dala

Nil

Nil

5.178

4.682

Nil

Zamzam

Nil

Nil

5.180

4.955

Nil

Manhal

Nil

Nil

5.181

4.701

42.34

Juman

210.0

277.2

5.181

5.727

2.016

Safa

Nil

16.41

5.173

4.952

Nil

One

Nil

Nil

5.193

4.278

Nil

Al-wadi

Nil

Nil

5.173

5.091

2.016

GSO,2009

         

WHO, 2011

         

Key: Nil = Not available in the sample

 

 Fig. 1. Water availability in the world; Saudi Arabia is one of the threatened areas [5].

Figure 1: Water availability in the world; Saudi Arabia is one of the threatened areas [5].

 

Click here to View figure

 

 Fig. 2. Location of the sampling areas (the three governorates) in Jazan Province, South-Western region of the Saudi Arabian Peninsula.

Figure 2: Location of the sampling areas (the three governorates) in Jazan Province, South-Western region of the Saudi Arabian Peninsula.

 

Click here to View figure

 

Conclusion

The current study determined the concentration of heavy metals and physico-chemical properties of drinking water from different sources (bottled, treated, and tap water) in Jazan area. Our findings showed that the drinking water quality of the investigated sources was within the recommended  limits established by WHO. However, to estimate the complete quality of the water samples  additional investigations are recommended for determining other kinds of pollutants such as  pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs).

Funding Information

This study was fully funded by the Scientific Research Deanship, Jazan University, under the grant number 36/6/2637.

References

  1. Wongsasuluk, P., Chotpantarat, S., Siriwong, W., and Robson, M. Heavy metal contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from shallow groundwater wells in an agricultural area in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. Environmental geochemistry and health, 36: 169-182. (2014).
    CrossRef
  2. ICSU, I., TWAS. 2002, in Science and Technology for Sustainable Development: Consensus Report and Background Document for the Mexico City Synthesis Workshop on Science and Technology for Sustainable Development, 20–23 May 2002 (2003).
  3. Adekunle, A. Effects of industrial effluent on quality of well water within Asa Dam Industrial Estate, Ilorin, Nigeria. Nature and Science, 7: 1545-0740 (2009).
  4. Barwick, R. S., Levy, D. A., Craun, G. F.,. Beach, M. J., and Calderon, R. L. Surveillance for waterborne-disease outbreaks—United States, 1997–1998. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ, 49: 1-21. (2000).
  5. Mebrahtu, G., and Zerabruk, S. Concentration and health implication of heavy metals in drinking water from urban areas of Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science, 3: 105-121 (2011).
    CrossRef
  6. Alhababy A. M., and Al-Rajab, A. J. Groundwater Quality Assessment in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia. Curr World Environ, 10(1): 22-28 (2015).
    CrossRef
  7. Mohamed, Z. A., and Al Shehri, A. M. Microcystins in groundwater wells and their accumulation in vegetable plants irrigated with contaminated waters in Saudi Arabia. Journal of hazardous materials, 172: 310-315 (2009).
    CrossRef
  8. Fayad, N. M. Seasonal variations of THMs in Saudi Arabian drinking water. Journal (American Water Works Association), 85(1) 46-50 (1993)
  9. Al-Hatim, H. Y., Alrajhi, D.,.and Al-Rajab, A. J. Detection of Pesticide Residue in Dams and Well Water in Jazan Area, Saudi Arabia. American Journal of Environmental Sciences, 11(5): 358-365 (2015).
    CrossRef
  10. Alabdula’aly, A. I. Fluoride content in drinking water supplies of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 48: 261-272 (1997).
    CrossRef
  11. Payment, P., Siemiatycki, J., Richardson, L., Renaud, G., Franco, E. et al. A prospective epidemiological study of gastrointestinal health effects due to the consumption of drinking water. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7: 5-31 (1997).
    CrossRef
  12. Birke, M., Reimann, C., Demetriades, A., Rauch, U., Lorenz, H. et al. Determination of major and trace elements in European bottled mineral water—analytical methods. Journal of Geochemical exploration, 107: 217-226 (2010).
    CrossRef
  13. Mahmoud, S. H., and Alazba, A. Identification of potential sites for groundwater recharge using a GIS-based decision support system in Jazan region-Saudi Arabia. Water resources management, 28: 3319-3340 (20140.
  14. WHO. Selenium in drinking-water, WHO/HSE/WSH/10.01/14 (2011).
  15. WHO. Chloride in drinking-water. WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/16 (2003).
  16. Foster, S., Kemper , K., Tuinhof, A., Koundouri, P., Nanni, M. et al. Natural Groundwater Quality Hazards, avoiding problems and formulating mitigation strategies. GW. MATE Core Group. Briefing Note Series Note 14 (2006).
    CrossRef
  17. Brima, E. I. Physicochemical properties and the concentration of anions, major and trace elements in groundwater, treated drinking water and bottled drinking water in Najran area, KSA. Applied Water Science. DOI 10.1007/s13201-014-0255-x (2014).
  18. USEPA. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), EPA 816-F-09-004 (2009)
  19. GSO. GCC Standardization Organization (GSO). Unbottled drinking water, Standard. No. 149/2000 (2008).
  20. SASO. Saudi Standards, Metrology and Quality Org. Water quality and standards, Chapter 3 (1984).
Views   Views: 217    PDF Downloads: 251
Share:Share on LinkedInShare on Google+Tweet about this on TwitterShare on FacebookEmail this to someone